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Important functions of the skeletal system include

a. protection of the brain and soft organs.

b. storage of water.

c. production of Vitamin E.

d. regulation of acid-base balance.

e. integration of other systems.


2. Cartilage

a. is composed of osteons.

b. is surrounded by a membrane called the periosteum.

c. contains chondrocytes located in lacunae.

d. does not need nutrients and oxygen so it has no blood vessels.

e. is well vascularized.


3. Collagen and calcium hydroxyapatite are the primary constituents of

a. bone matrix.

b. hyaline cartilage.

c. fibrous cartilage.

d. ligaments.

e. blood.


4. The primary function of osteoblasts is to

a. prevent osteocytes from forming.

b. resorb bone along the epiphyseal plate.

c. inhibit the growth of bone.

d. stimulate bone growth.

e. lay down bone matrix.


5. A cord of connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone is a

a. ligament.

b. periosteum.

c. endosteum.

d. tendon.

e. muscle spindle.


6. A passageway connecting neighboring osteocytes in an osteon is a

a. central canal.

b. lamella.

c. canaliculus.

d. lacuna.

e. osteocanal.


7. Which of the following is correctly matched?

a. short bone - carpal bone

b. long bone – vertebra

c. irregular bone – femur

d. flat bone - phalanges of the toes

e. short bone – humerus


8. What is the area where marrow is located?

a. epiphysis

b. Sharpey's fibers

c. growth plate

d. medullary cavity

e. endosteum


9. Which of the following events occurs last in intramembranous ossification?

a. Osteoprogenitor cells become osteoblasts.

b. A membrane of delicate collagen fibers develops.

c. Cancellous bone is formed.

d. Periosteum is formed.

e. Many tiny trabeculae of woven bone develop.


10. Which of the following statements regarding calcium homeostasis is true?

a. Parathyroid hormone inhibits osteoclast activity.

b. When blood calcium levels are too low, osteoclast activity increases.

c. Increased osteoblast activity increases blood calcium levels.

d. Parathyroid hormone increases calcium loss from the kidney.

e. Calcitonin elevates blood calcium levels.


11. Which of the following bones is part of the axial skeleton?

a. rib

b. radius

c. clavicle

d. scapula

e. coax


12. Which of the following bones is paired?

a. vomer

b. temporal

c. sphenoid

d. mandible

e. maxilla


13. Which of the following bones contains a sinus?

a. Maxilla

b. nasal bone

c. occipital bone

d. zygomatic bone

e. temporal


14. Which of the following statements is true?

a. The first cervical vertebra is called the axis.

b. The spinal cord protects the vertebral column.

c. Thoracic vertebrae have long, thin spinous processes.

d. The sacral vertebrae are superior to the lumbar vertebrae.

e. Lumbar vertebrae are generally smaller than thoracic vertebrae.


15. The opening in vertebrae for the spinal cord is the

a. intervertebral disk.

b. vertebral foramen.

c. lamina.

d. intervertebral foramen.

e. spinous process.


16. The collar bone is the

a. sternum.

b. clavicle.

c. scapula.

d. humerus.

e. atlas.


17. The acromion process

a. is part of the clavicle.

b. articulates with the coracoid process.

c. forms the most inferior part of the glenoid fossa.

d. has no function.

e. has an articulation with the clavicle.


18. A woman pinched her phalange. She hurt her

a. ear.

b. toe.

c. cheek.

d. finger.

e. toe or her finger.


19. Which of the following statements about the femur is TRUE?

a. The head of the femur articulates with the tibia.

b. The medial condyle articulates with the acetabulum.

c. Both the greater and lesser trochanters are attachment sites for muscles.

d. The distal end of the tibia articulates with the femur.

e. The proximal end of the femur articulates with the tibia.


20. The tarsal bone that articulates with the tibia and the fibula is the

a. talus.

b. cuboid.

c. navicular.

d. calcaneus.

e. patella.


21. A place where two or more bones come together is a(n)

a. cavity.

b. joint.

c. contusion.

d. articulation.

e. joint and an articulation.


22. Joints are classified according to the

a. bones that are united at the joint.

b. structure of the joint.

c. size of the joint.

d. shape of the joint.

e. type of fluid in the joint.


23. Cartilaginous joints

a. are common in the skull.

b. unite two bones by means of fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage.

c. allow the most movement between bones.

d. are found in the lower leg.

e. are not found in the pelvic region.


24. Synovial joints are different from both fibrous and cartilaginous joints because

synovial joints

a. use fibrous connective tissue to hold the bones in the joint together.

b. are enclosed by a joint capsule.

c. are only temporary; they are replaced in the adult.

d. generally have both bones in the joint fused together.

e. are not freely moveable.


25. Synovial fluid

a. is a double layer of tissue that encloses a joint.

b. is a thin lubricating film covering the surface of a joint.

c. provides a smooth surface where bones meet.

d. is a layer of tissue that is continuous with the periosteum.

e. lines the joint everywhere except over the articular cartilage.


26. This type of joint is multiaxial allowing a wide range of movement.

a. saddle

b. hinge

c. pivot

d. plane

e. ball and socket


27. Which of the following movements is an example of extension?

a. bending forward at the waist

b. kneeling

c. raising your arm laterally

d. using your finger to point out an area on a map

e. shrugging your shoulders


28. Rotating the forearm so that the palm faces posteriorly is called

a. circumduction.

b. rotation.

c. hyperextension.

d. supination.

e. pronation.


29. The glenoid labrum is part of the _____ joint while the acetabular labrum is part of

the _____ joint.

a. elbow; knee

b. shoulder; hip

c. shoulder; knee

d. elbow; hip

e. shoulder; elbow


30. The medial meniscus is in the

a. neck.

b. shoulder.

c. hip.

d. knee.

e. elbow.


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